How to reach Florence?


Tuscan city, the provincial capital and region, with 437,585 inhabitants, situated 50 m in height; the municipal area, large 102.4 sq km; It counts 457,803 inhabitants (436,516 in 1991). It is located on the banks of the River Arno: primarily on the right one; North is surrounded by the hills of Careggi and Fiesole, south from those of Arcetri (with the famous astronomical observatory) and Bellosguardo; to the east a small plane separates from the Settignano hills while West opens the plain of which also arise Pistoia Prato and Siena. In this stretch they flow into the Arno, the Affrico and Mugnone, from left to Greve.

The initial pre-Roman nucleus and the Roman Florentia stood on the road from Fiesole to Volterra, in an easy passage dell 'Arno; their center was in today Piazza della Repubblica. According to the first census of the Kingdom of Italy, the inhabitants were 114 368 in 1861. After the Unity of Italy Florence was the capital from 1865 to 1871; consequence was a sudden increase of population and strong: you came quickly to 145,000 inhabitants, 174,000 in the municipality. The walls on the right bank, leaving the gates, to build the avenues beyond which new neighborhoods were built were demolished.

The Second World War has deeply damaged the city: much of it between the first two circles of walls has been destroyed. All the bridges were blown up, except for Ponte Vecchio, to block that access roads were however demolished. Today the city is going up the hills to the north and south; the very center extends partly in the towns of Fiesole and Bagno a Ripoli; in the municipal area are located real estate or industrial nuclei: Rovezzano, Settignano, Careggi, Peretola, Brozzi, Ponte a Greve, Galluzzo, Ponte a Ema; others have been incorporated by 'expansion of the center (p. eg., Rifredi, ind. Galileo and Pinion).

Urban plant three circles of walls are visible: the first century. VII, a rectangular pattern, is similar to that of Roman age and contains the core of the city that has retained the right angles Roman; the second century, XII extends Oltr'Arno up to the Holy Spirit and at Pitti; the third, the end of the century. XIII, it corresponds to today's boulevards.

Not remain testimonies of the early Christian period or early Middle Ages; the first significant monuments date back to 'communal age: Baptistry (sec. XI), octagonal, rifasciato externally by pink and white marble, with a rectangular apse and attic of the century. XIII, in gilded bronze doors by A. Pisano and L. Ghiberti and, in the interior, Byzantine mosaics with expressionistic Maddalena di Donatello wood; S. Miniato al Monte (sec. XI-XIII), which also has outdoor decoration in marble inlays and dicrome basilica plan of the century crypt. XI, contains works by Spinello Aretino, Michelozzo, Manetti, Luca della Robbia, Pollaiolo A., A. Baldovinetti, P. Bird; SS. Apostles, basilica, classical, with works by G. della Robbia, Pomarancio, Ammannati; St. Peter Schereggio, built in the Uffizi; St James soprano, S. Salvatore al Vescovo.

In sec. XIII the first clear hints of gothic ultramontane take shape in: Santa Maria Novella, with LB Alberti façade, a Latin cross, and pointed vaults, rich in valuable works (Giotto, Spinello Aretino, Nardo di Cione, Andrea Orcagna, Masaccio, Ghirlandaio , Filippino Lippi, Brunelleschi, Ghiberti), with an adjoining monastery (cloister frescoed by Paolo Uccello, chapel of the Spaniards by Andrea da Firenze, the Popes chapel P. Pontormo); Santa Croce, probably on a project by Arnolfo di Cambio (facade of sec. Nineteenth) and polygonal apse flanked by 10 chapels with frescoes by Giotto, T. and A. Gaddi, Giovanni da Milano, B. Daddi, Maso di Banco, and numerous Renaissance sculptures (Donatello, Benedetto da Majano, B. Rossellino, Desiderio da Settignano, etc.) and the Novitiate chapel of Michelozzo; Santa Trinita, attributed to Nicola Pisano, enlarged in '300 with Buontalenti's facade, a number of important frescoes and works; Badia church with the interior renovated in '600, works by Mino da Fiesole, Filippino Lippi, etc .; cathedral, designed by Arnolfo di Cambio, continued by F. Talenti and finished by Brunelleschi (the dome, with the exterior decorated with a polychrome marble and numerous sculptures, stained-glass windows by Paolo Uccello designs, A. Del Castagno, etc. , works by B. Daddi, Michelangelo, Ghiberti, etc., two beautiful sacristy, bell tower, designed and begun by Giotto and continued by A. Pisano F. Talenti, covered with polychrome marble inlays and decorated by a series of hexagons relief; San Remigio; Santa Maria Maggiore with façade of Buontalenti; Orsanmichele, original loggia-market by Arnolfo di Cambio, transformed into a church in the flamboyant Gothic ways; numerous remains of tower-houses, the Bargello Palace, Palazzo Vecchio to three plans with crenellated and high side tower.

Century, XIV palace of Lana, the Captains of the Guelph Party, Alessandra, etc., As well as different ports of the third circle and Ponte Vecchio. Particular increase had the city under the Medici enriched with religious and civil monumental works. Open the humanistic experience balanced achievements of Brunelleschi dome of the cathedral; Hospital of the Innocents, with portico round arches decorated by round Della Robbia; Chapel de 'Pazzi central plan with grandstand topped by a hemispherical dome, interior with round robbiani and Brunelleschi; San Lorenzo basilica, to which is annexed the Old Sacristy by Brunelleschi with a square central plan surmounted by a dome, the new sacristy, where Michelangelo sculpted and designed the tombs of Giuliano and Lorenzo de 'Medici; Michelangelo's library, preceded by a vestibule with staircase; Basilica Holy Spirit; Palazzo Pitti, designed by Brunelleschi, expanded from 'Ammannati that begins the series of mansions (Rucellai of' Alberti, Michelozzo's Medici-Riccardi, G. from Sangallo Gondi, Strozzi, Antinori, etc.).

Always the fifteenth century the shrine of St. Sepulchre and that of 'Annunziata L. B. Alberti; the convent and the church of San Marco century. XIII, enlarged by Michelozzo, with the cycles of frescoes by Fra Angelico, Ghirlandaio, etc .; Convent of Santa Apollonia with frescoes by Andrea del Castagno; Brancacci Chapel in the Carmine frescoes by Masolino, Masaccio, etc.. The '500 Michelangelo's activities as a whole and in the Laurentian strong S. Miniato; Also: Fortezza da Basso A. da Sangallo the Younger: Fort San Giorgio, Palazzo Pandolfini, the Uffizi Vasari; dell'Ammannati: Ponte Santa Trinita, the fountain in Piazza Signoria, home of Bianca Cappello, etc.

The Renaissance town planning is visible in Via Maggio, Tomabuoni, de 'Ginori, in the hamlet S. Apostles, as well as in the gardens of Villa di Castello (Tribolo), and Boboli (Tribolo, Ammannati, Buontalenti). Few baroque buildings and sec. XVII, mostly rearrangements of pre-existing buildings; M. Nigetti: Saints Philip and James, Chapel of the Princes in San Lorenzo, the church of All Saints facade, San Gaetano, etc .; P. F. Silvani: the Corsini palace complex, the palaces of Via Cavour and Via Santo Spirito.

Frescoes by P. da Cortona in Palazzo Pitti, L. Giordano in Palazzo Medici Riccardi, S. Ricci in Marucellio building, neoclassical palazzo Borghese, Villa di Poggio Imperiale, etc., And the romantic rebuilding of the castle Vincigliata, etc. characterize 1800. Del sec. XX: stage of P. L. Nervi, Central Station G. Michelucci and others.

Museums. Cabinet of Drawings and Prints, Palatine Gallery, Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, Museo degli Argenti, Museo di San Marco, Accademia Gallery, Archaeological Museum, National Museum of the Bargello, the Uffizi Gallery, the Museo dell'Opera di Santa Croce Foundation Home. Casa Buonarroti. Ospedale degli Innocenti Gallery, Museum of Prehistory in 'former convent of the Oblate Sisters, Palazzo Vecchio, Galleria Corsini, Feroni Gallery, Gallery of Modern Art, Museum of the Bigallo, Museo Mediceo, Opificio delle Pietre Dure, Bardini Museum, Fondazione S. Romano, Stibbert Museum, Museum of the ancient Florentine House, Historical and Topographical Museum, Museum of the History of Science, permanent exhibition of memorabilia of the Laurentian, National Museum of 'Craft, Duprè Museum.

mappa Firenze

How to get in Florence by train

- Santa Maria Novella is the main railway station in Florence. Santa Maria Novella is located in the historic center of Florence. The Eurostar from Milan, Turin, Venice and Rome arrive at this station. Also the trains for Viareggio (and the Versilia coast) leave and arrive at this station. Arriving at this station, you can visit the historical center without taking buses or taxis.

- Rifredi is a small station in the Rifredi area. Rifredi station is near Careggi hospital and the university of Florence. It is a few kilometers from the historic center of Florence.

- Florence Campo di Marte is located a few kilometers from the historic center of Florence. The Campo di Marte Station is particularly useful for those who must travel to the Artemio Franchi stadium in Florence.

How to get in Florence by plane

- Florence Amerigo Vespucci Airport is provided, (zone of Peretola), situated to least kilometers from Historical Center. There are direct international connections to Florence, in any case the airport covers many European drafts and often with flights low cost. Peretola is about 5 km from the center and is well connected by taxis, shuttles and buses.

- Taxi fares from the airport to the center of Florence are around 15-20 €.

- The Shuttle Bus connects the airport to the Santa Maria Novella railway station with a rate of 3.00 to 4.00 € per person.

- At the airport there are several car rentals where you can rent a car. The Florence airport can be reached from the nearby town of Prato (8 km), Pistoia (24 km), Montecatini (36 km), Lucca (65 km), Siena (68 km), Arezzo (77 km), Pisa ( 86 km), and Massa Carrara (117 km), Grosseto (143 km), and from the main ports in Tuscany: Livorno (115 km) and Piombino (170 km).

- You can get to Florence using the airport of Pisa, which, however, is about 70km from Florence. The ticket for the bus that connects the two cities is about 7 €. The price for a taxi from Pisa to Florence costs about € 100, but you can also choose to use the train that connects Pisa airport to Florence Santa Maria Novella

How to get in Florence by car

- For those coming from Milan, the best way is the A1 Bologna-Florence, exit at Firenze Nord, then follow the signs to the center of Florence.

- Coming from Genoa or France, take the A12 to Viareggio, and follow the A11 to Florence, exit Firenze Nord. Reach the center of Florence.

- Coming from Rome, A1 Rome-Milan, Florence South exit, here following the signs to the center of Florence.

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